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Credit: © Mark Wade The history of rocket and space development in China.
This time, the challenger to the American super-power was China.
The black powder rocket was invented by the ancient Chinese, but no indigenous effort in development of rocketry or space theory took place until the return of Tsien Hsue-Shen to China from America in 1955.
Since the birth of China's space program a year later its development has mirrored that of the nation as a whole.
It went through stages of arduous pioneering, development, reform and revitalization, and international cooperation.
China's space industry was developed from a non-existent industrial infrastructure and scientific and technological level.
After 50 years of struggle China ranked among the most advanced countries in such fields as manned spacecraft, satellite recovery, multi-satellite launch by a single rocket, cryogenic propulsion, strap-on boosters, geostationary satellites, satellite tracking and control, remote-sensing, communications, and navigation satellites, and micro-gravity experiments.
Tsien Hsue-Shen The early development of the Chinese rocketry and space technology was led by American-trained Tsien Hsue-Shen.
Tsien was born in Hangzhou, China in 1911 and went to America on a Boxer Rebellion Scholarship in 1935.
Becoming a protégé of the legendary Theodor von Karman, Tsien was the leading theoretician in rocket and high-speed flight theory in the United States.
He was instrumental in the founding of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in California, and collaborated closely with the newly-founded Aerojet Corporation.
Tsien was a member of a team of top scientists that entered Germany just behind the American lines, locating and returning to the United States key documents and personnel of the advanced German aircraft and rocketry programs.
Tsien first met Wernher von Braun during this period.
Returning from Germany, Tsien edited the leading findings of the project in the 800-page Jet Propulsion, which would become the classified technical Bible for post-war aircraft and rocket technical research in the United States.
By 1949 Tsien applied the knowledge learned to the design of a practical intercontinental rocket transport see Tsien Spaceplane 1949.
But in this same period Tsien's homeland was undergoing a chaotic period of civil war leading to the victory of Mao Tse-tung's Communist forces.
In the larger world, the Cold War struggle had begun.
Stalin had exploded an atomic bomb.
It was revealed that the technology had been stolen from the Americans by wartime Soviet spies.
The wartime ally was transformed to America's joker slot mega />In the backlash, McCarthyism took root in the United States.
Tsien seemed to have undergone a similar personal struggle of loyalty and allegiances.
On the one hand he had applied to become a US citizen in 1949 and had become one of the senior scientists advising the US military on post-war development of rocket technology.
On the other hand, Tsien was revolted by the corruption of the Chinese nationalists, faced racial discrimination in the United States, and constantly vacillated in his desire to return to his homeland.
On June 6, 1950, Tsien was visited by the FBI and accused of being a Communist party member.
His security clearance was revoked, destroying his ability to conduct further research.
He attempted to return to China, but was detained under virtual house arrest for five years, while his technical knowledge become more and more dated.
In the 1955 Geneva talks on return of American prisoners of war, release of Tsien was made an explicit condition of the Chinese.
Eisenhower himself agreed to do so, and in September 1955 Tsien left for China.
Arduous Pioneering Building rocket and aircraft technology in China was to be a long process.
Achieving the indigenous technologies in metallurgy, machinery, and electronics was an enormous task.
Tsien assisted in negotiation of a 1956 agreement with the Soviet Union for transfer of rocket and nuclear technology to China, including training of Chinese students at Russian universities.
The Russians provided an R-2 rocket, an improved version of the V-2, as a starting point.
But in 1960 the Soviet government discontinued further cooperation with China.
Nevertheless later that year Tsien launched the first Chinese-built R-2, the DF-1.
Chinese political upheavals - the Great Leap Forward, the Cultural Revolution, Tsien's backing of the disgraced Lin Biao - further delayed progress.
However despite incredible impediments, the Chinese rocket team launched the CZ-DF-5 ICBM in 1971, in a single decade having gone through intermediate DF-2, DF-3DF-3 Tsienand DF-4 missile designs.
The DF-5 ICBM provided the basis for the CZ-FB-1 and CZ-2A space launch vehicles.
In 1968 Tsien founded the Space Flight Medical Research Center to prepare for manned flights.
The Shuguang-1 project aimed to put a Chinese man into space by 1973.
By 1970 he had launched China's first satellite, the DFH-1, using his CZ-1 rocket the DF-2 missile with an upper stagemaking China the fifth spacefaring country in the world.
However the turmoil within Chinese politics continued to impede progress.
The CZ-FB-1 and its mysterious JSSW satellite, built by the losing side of the cultural revolution, was canceled.
The Shuguang-1, its officers implicated in the Lin Biao affair, was stopped.
The CZ-2 however was elaborated into an extensive launch vehicle family over the next thirty years.
It was used for launches of the FSW photo reconnaissance satellite, with a recoverable re-entry capsule beginning in 1974.
It so strongly resembled the canceled US Dynasoar of 15 years earlier that US intelligence analysts wondered if it wasn't based on declassified Dynasoar technical information.
It would seem that this was to be preceded by a simpler manned capsule Chinese Manned Capsule 1978.
First public announcement of the manned program came in February, 1978.
By November the head of the Chinese Space Agency, Jen Hsin-Min, confirmed that China was working on a manned space capsule and a "Skylab" space station.
In January, 1980 the Chinese press reported a visit with the Chinese astronaut trainees at the Chinese manned spaceflight training center.
Photographs appeared of the astronauts in training.
Pressure suited astronauts were shown in pressure chamber tests.
Other trainees were shown at the controls of a space shuttle-like spaceplane cockpit.
A fleet of ships for recovery of manned capsules at sea was built and in May, 1980, the first capsule was recovered from the South Pacific after a suborbital launch.
But then, suddenly, in December, 1980, Wang Zhuanshan, the Secretary General of the New China Space Research Society and Chief Engineer of the Space Center of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, announced that Chinese manned flight was being postponed because slot racing track hua dong its cost.
Fundamental economic development was given priority.
Development China returned to development of more-modest unmanned spacecraft and entering the international commercial launch market in 1985.
China developed new cryogenic engines and used a modular approach based on the CZ-2 design to create a family of 12 Long-March rocket configurations, capable of placing up to 9,200 kg into orbit.
China launched 27 foreign-made satellites in 1985-2000.
A series of launch failures lead to US assistance in improving the design, resulting in 21 consecutive successful flights from October 1996 to October 2000.
However by then a US embargo over improper technology transfer and collapse of the MEO satellite market led to a sharp reduction in Chinese commercial launches.
Geography and the availability of existing CZ-2 launch pads resulted in China establishing three land-locked launch sites to reach various orbits.
These were Jiuquan, for launch to mid-inclination orbits, Xichang for launch to geosynchronous orbit, and Taiyuan for polar orbits.
Indigenous satellite development was not neglected.
By October 2000, China had launched 47 satellites of various types, with a flight success rate of over 90%.
In the late 1980s, the design was employed for earth resources photography and experiments in crystal and protein remarkable, crime scene slots facebook walkthrough right!, cell cultivation and crop breeding.
China was the third country in the world to master the technology of satellite recovery.
In the mid-1980s, China began to utilize domestic DFH-2 and foreign telecommunications satellites.
For fixed telecom service, China built scores of large and medium-sized satellite telecom earth stations, with more than 27,000 international satellite telephone channels.
The establishment of the DFH-3 domestic satellite public communication network, with more than 70,000 satellite telephone channels, solved the problem of communication in remote areas.
By 2000 the VSAT Very Small Aperture Terminal communication service had 30 domestic VSAT communication service providers and 15,000 small station users, including 6,300 two-way users from areas such as finance, meteorology, transportation, oil, water resources, civil aviation, power, public health and media.
China started to use foreign satellites for TV broadcasting in 1985, and formed a network with 33 transponders transmitting programs for CCTV China Central Television and local TV stations.
Operation of satellite education TV broadcasting programs in 1988 trained over 30 million people in college or technical secondary school education.
China also set up a satellite direct broadcasting experimental platform to transmit digital television to 189,000 dishes in China's vast rural areas.
These provided an indigenous weather-tracking capability.
The FY-1 series operated from low earth sun synchronous orbits while lucky vegas slots FY-2 operated in geosynchronous orbit.
China started to explore the upper atmosphere using rockets and balloons in the early 1960s.
In the early 1970s, China began to utilize SJ satellites to obtain data on the space environment.
The establishment of open state-level laboratories specializing in space physics, micro-gravity and space life science, and the founding of the Space Payload Application Center provided the basis for public international collaboration on space science.
Manned Programs China restarted preliminary work on advanced manned spaceflight in July 1985.
The decision came against a background of vigorous international space activity.
The United States had its Strategic Defense Initiative and Space Station Freedom.
The Soviet Union had its Buran shuttle system, Mir and Mir-2 space stations, and its own star wars program.
Europe was developing the Hermes manned spaceplane, and Japan the Hope winged spacecraft.
Even India and China were taking on ambitious space projects.
It seemed China would have to take action to remain a world power.
Ren Xin Min, the leading Chinese rocketry expert of the time, believed that China should make a space station its national goal.
This would develop all aspects of space technology, including modern launch vehicle capabilities.
In early spring 1986, members of iphone 5c case card standing committee of the Chinese Academy of Sciences Wang Da Hang, Wang Ganchang, Yang Jiachi, Chen Fangyun proposed a family of seven Project 863 plans to accelerate Chinese technical development.
These numbered plans covered biology, astronautics, information technology, military technology, automation, energy, and materials science.
Astronautics plan 863-2 included section 863-204 space transportation system, which would service the 863-205 space station.
It was estimated that two years would be needed for concept studies.
An expert group was established for the 863-204 shuttle, and issued a tender call to Chinese industry within two months of starting work.
Two months later 11 alternate proposals were delivered, of which six were selected for feasibility studies.
These were delivered in June 1988.
The first stage would used air breathing engines to accelerate the rocket-powered second stage to release velocity.
This ambitious design would leapfrog China ahead of other spacefaring nations, but would be available no earlier than 2015.
The first stage would use liquid oxygen-kerosene engines, while the second would use liquid oxygen-hydrogen engines.
Both stages would be winged, check this out first flight would be no earlier than 2015.
An expendable booster, based on existing technology, would boost the winged second stage shuttle to a high altitude.
The engines of the second stage would take it to orbit.
This approach would allow a first flight article source be made in 2008.
It duplicated the aerodynamic shape of the American shuttle, but was a fraction of the size.
Unlike the shuttle, the engines would not be recovered - the spaceplane would be launched by an existing expendable booster.
Pursuing this as a more modest first objective would allow China to take an incremental approach to eventually achieving a reusable shuttle.
Conceived as being able to fly in both unmanned and manned modes, Tian Jiao 1 could be available by 2003.
Institute 611 of the Ministry of Air was involved in collaborative projects with France at the time.
They judged the existing technical development of China and France to be roughly equivalent.
This meant it would be possible for China to license-build the European Hermes manned spaceplane for its own use.
This would be the quickest and most efficient way for China to obtain the latest manned spaceflight technology, with a first flight in the 1990's.
Department 508 argued that the Chinese industrial and technical base was not realistically up to developing winged reusable spacecraft, and that this would take a very long time and would not be flying until well into the 21st Century.
A capsule should be developed in any case as a lifeboat for the space station, and would provide a Chinese manned space capability by the year 2000 - and until a winged spacecraft was available.
Seventeen experts met in Harbin during 20-31 July, 1988, to make final assessments and recommend a course of action.
It finally concluded that development of a winged reusable space shuttle system was acceptable as a national long-term goal to guide technology development.
But China did not have aerodynamic or rocket technology to slot iphone price list a hypersonic aircraft with reusable rocket engines.
The two designs that were considered technically achievable ranked very close in the expert's rating system - the Tian Jao 1 with a score of 83.
However no decision could be made as to one or the other at the conference, and the debate raged further.
The space capsule advocates pointed out that the development cost would be relatively modest, since China already had the boosters to launch it, and had proven ballistic capsule re-entry and recovery technology.
They repeated that such a capsule would in any case be needed as a lifeboat for a Chinese station, and that the capsule would be safer and more reliable than a spaceplane design.
The Coral vegas slots aeronautical industry in fact did not have the existing technical base to build a casino slots goldwin supersonic cruise aircraft, let alone a hypersonic aircraft.
The Tian Jao spaceplane advocates pointed out that the space capsule approach did little to advance the Project 863 objectives of leapfrogging Chinese technology to a world-class 21st Century level.
Indeed China might even invite international contempt by flying a 1960's-type design.
The final 863-204 Expert Commission report in July 1989 advocated building the manned capsule, with a first flight date of 2000.
This would satisfy the leadership's desire for an early Chinese manned space capability, and establish the essential earthly infrastructure and spacecraft subsystems technology for more advanced systems.
However in parallel development of technology for a two-stage-two-orbit horizontal takeoff and landing reusable space shuttle would be pursued, with a first flight date of 2015.
The report failed to impress the government.
Chinese leader Deng Xiaoping rejected both plans, saying that neither could be flying in his lifetime.
The Chinese space establishment went back to the drawing board.
While this planning for a new era of Chinese space exploration was underway in great secrecy, an official stance of indifference was presented to the outside world.
In 1984 President Reagan offered to fly a Chinese cosmonaut on the U.
Subsequent efforts to involve them in the International Space Station were also unsuccessful.
The Chinese press reported that astronauts were still in training in September, 1986, but also that manned spaceflight was still considered unaffordable.
However in 1983-1988 China signed the various UN treaties on space and began participating in international conferences.
Reform and Revitalization Deng stepped down as Chairman of the Central Military Commission in 1989.
In his absence the Chinese military decided it could safely lend its critical support to a manned space program.
In January 1991 the Air Ministry established a manned space program office with Liu Jiyuan as its head.
After that things moved quickly.
On 15 March 1991 Project 863 leader Ren Xin Min was called to a meeting with Premier Li Peng.
Ren Xin Min presented a more modest manned space development plan, using the existing Long March CZ-2E booster to launch a manned ballistic capsule into orbit.
There was no longer any mention of development of slot racing track hua dong reusable winged space shuttles.
Li Peng was especially gratified to see the funds previously spent on the Long March rocket being put to good use, and work on the project began in earnest.
However it differed critically in that the orbital module was larger and capable of autonomous flight after the conclusion of the mission.
Leader of the design team was Ren Xin Min.
One was a three-module Soyuz-type design, with a forward orbital module, a central re-entry vehicle, and an aft service module.
The second had the re-entry vehicle forward, with an orbital module at the center, and a service module aft.
Access from the re-entry vehicle to the orbital module was via a metal tube, which ran externally from a hatch in the re-entry vehicle to the orbital module the solution used in the American MOL, and Soviet Soyuz VI and TKS - a hatch in the heat shield - was evidently considered unacceptable.
The third design had just two modules, a larger re-entry vehicle forward, and a service module aft.
In October 1991 Tsien was retired.
Ren Xin Min brought 10% scale models of the proposed designs to a final evaluation board on 8 January 1992.
In April 1992 the Chinese leadership decided that an independent manned space program could now be afforded.
Perhaps unsurprisingly, the decision was taken to proceed with Ren Xin Min's three-module-autonomous orbital module concept.
The final plan was approved on 21 September 1992, and Project 921 to create a Chinese manned space capability began in earnest.
But Project 921 was much more than just the development of a new spacecraft and modified booster.
Implementing the program required modernization of the Chinese technology base and infrastructure, and this was in fact its main purpose.
Wang Yongzhi was made responsible for overall project management.
At CAST, Qi Faren was responsible for the spacecraft itself.
The design of the service module was assigned to SAST under Qi Faren's direction.
CALT was to design the CZ-2F man-rated modification of the CZ-2F.
A complete new technology vertical assembly building, mobile launch vehicle transporter, and launch pads had to be built in Jiuquan with Xu Kejun as chief designer.
An integrated approach slot receiver in football recovery of the manned spacecraft, including land, sea, and air vehicles, was developed by Zhao Jun for use in the primary landing zones at Siziwangqi and Alashanyouqi in Inner Mongolia.
A new unified S-band spacecraft tracking and control network was developed under the leadership of Yu Zhijian.
This included new tracking sites outside of Chinese territory, a new tracking ship, the xiaomi redmi note 3 slot microsd of existing tracking stations and ships, and a new flight control center in the north-east suburbs of Beijing.
Astronaut training and crew technology was non-existent in China, and this capacity was developed by Shu Shuangning at the Aerospace Medical Engineering Research Institute.
A rearguard action was fought to try to include new booster development.
In October 1993 the Shanghai Astronautics Bureau proposed development of six large carrier rockets and eight new spacecraft, including a manned one, for inclusion in the Eight and Ninth Five Year Economic Plans.
But this was not approved.
Shanghai's program for development of a new generation of liquid oxygen - kerosene rockets was shelved, and those resources were instead put into the development of large solid motors for military use.
Russian assistance to the program began as early as May 1991, when Russian lecturers briefed the Chinese engineers on the capabilities and potential of their Soyuz spacecraft.
This was followed by two-year fellowships for 20 young Chinese engineers in Russia during 1992-1994.
In September 1994 Chinese President Jiang Zemin visited the Russian Flight Control Center in Kaliningrad and noted that there were broad prospects for cooperation between the two countries in space.
In March 1995 a deal was signed to transfer manned spacecraft technology to China.
Included in the agreement were training of cosmonauts, provision of Soyuz spacecraft capsules and life support systems, androgynous docking systems, and space suits.
In 1996 two Chinese astronauts, Wu Jie and Li Qinglong, slot load burner training at the Yuri Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center in Russia.
After graduation these men returned to China and began selection of a cadre of 12 Chinese astronauts.
In June 1999, coincident with public announcements that the first unmanned test of the spacecraft would be made in October, photographs of the CZ-2F launcher with a Soyuz-style shroud appeared mysteriously on the Internet.
In fact the program was encountering serious delays, and the only way to make the deadline of the first unmanned launch by the end of 1999 was to take the ground electrical test model of the spacecraft and fly that in space.
So the first Shenzhou would have functioning service module and re-entry vehicle, but the orbital module would be a nearly inert mock-up.
In April 1998 China began export of its satellite technology with the signature of a memorandum of understanding with Iran, the Republic of Korea, Mongolia, Pakistan and Thailand for development of a 'Small Multi-Mission Satellite' The first model of a planned manned shuttle was exhibited at Hanover Expo 2000.
This showed a double-delta winged spaceplane with a single vertical stabilizer, equipped slot racing track hua dong three high-expansion engines.
Based on the size of the presumed two crew side-by-side cockpit, dimensions could be very roughly estimated as a wingspan of 8 m and a length of 12 m, and a total mass of 12 metric tons.
This seemed about half the size but the same configuration as the original six-engined Tian Jiao orbiter designed in 1988.
The New Millennium The China National Space Administration CNSA was established as China's governmental organization responsible for the management of satellites for civilian use and inter-governmental space cooperation with other countries.
This would include meteorological, earth resource, oceanic, and disaster monitoring satellites.
An important part of this would include a coordinated national satellite remote-sensing data slot car chassis identification for receiving, processing and distributing data to both civilian more info military users.
This effort was begun with launch of the ZY-2 Ziyuan - 'resource-2' digital imaging military surveillance satellite in September 2000.
It was followed by the SJ-6 ELINT satellites in 2004 and the Yaogan synthetic aperture radar all-weather military surveillance satellites in 2006.
Other elements of this system were the Disaster Monitoring Constellation, the Earthquake Monitoring Satellite, and the FY-2 and FY-3 weather satellites, HY-1 oceanographic satellites, Double Star magnetosphere monitoring spacecraft, and SST solar monitoring satellites.
This would consist of geostationary telecommunications and direct broadcasting satellites with long operating life, high reliability and large capacity.
Partnerships would be made with Western companies to increase the level of Chinese technology.
Sinosat-1, launched in 1998, was the first such cooperative project between the Chinese and European aerospace industries.
The technology would be used to develop new FH-1 military and DFH-4 civilian communications satellites, together with commercial satellites from other countries, to form a command-and-control network designed to link Chinese combat forces.
Deployment of the new constellation began with Zhongxing 22 in January 2000.
This would be achieved by launching a satellite constellation in stages while developing the relevant application systems.
The end result would be a Chinese indigenous satellite navigation and positioning industry.
In the early 1980s, China began to utilize other countries' navigation satellites and develop the application technology of satellite navigation and positioning.
After joining the COSPAS-SARSAT in 1992, China established the Chinese Mission Control Center.
Experimental launch of the first pair of indigenous Beidou navigation satellites began in 2000.
The system became operational shortly thereafter, with development for commercial applications beginning in 2002.
In 2006 it was announced that a supplementary 30-satellite medium-earth-orbit constellation of satellites would provide source to all users.
The first of this Beidou-2 constellation was launched in 2007.
This enormous program encountered significant technical delays, and by 2007 was several years behind schedule.
This project proceeded at a very slow launch rate, with a budget sufficient for an average of less than a single launch a year.
The first and second manned Shenzhou-5 and -6 flights, in 2003 and 2005, generated enormous pride and interest with the Chinese public.
However the military sponsors of the project seemed more interested in the use of the stay-behind Shenzhou orbital module as an ELINT and military test platform.
Then the program stalled seriously, with the Space Laboratory being delayed by the development problems with the new generation launch vehicles.
In 2007 it was announced that Shenzhou-7, with the long-awaited first Chinese spacewalk, would take place that year.
But then there would be a three-year delay.
Shenzhou 8 and 9 would be launched unmanned, modified to be 8 metric ton space laboratory modules with two docking ports.
They would then be followed by the manned Shenzhou 10, which would presumably operate the station for a brief period.
Then there would be another multi-year delay, with a small man-tended space station being launched in 2012, followed by at least one visiting manned mission.
These would conduct studies in micro-gravity, materials science, life sciences, space environment, astronomy, and preliminary studies for manned exploration of the moon.
The first of these new series were the SJ-5, CX-1, OlympicSat, and TS-1 satellites.
Depending on available budget, this could include the Chinese Space Laboratory, and the Chinese Lunar Base.
The allegations of Chinese theft of American technology through espionage, and the following security crackdowns and spy hunts, were strongly reminiscent of the early 1950's.
It seemed that the second Cold War was beginning, with a second Space Race as well.
Thus began the new millennium and the 'Chinese Century', in which China was projected to become the richest, most populous, and most powerful nation on Earth.
Addendum - Chinese Space Infrastructure The national space program was managed htc slot card the China Aerospace Corporation CASC - called the Ministry of Aerospace Industry before 1993.
CASC continued to act as a government department when dealing with foreign affairs in the name of the China National Space Administration CNSA.
Commercial space activities were handled by the China Great Wall Industry Corporation CGWIC.
CGWIC was a foreign trade company, exclusively responsible for international sales, marketing, commercial negotiation, zeus 3 slot execution and performance.
CGWIC established business relations with a number of companies and https://gamerdownload.net/slot/you-tube-slots-2020.html institutes in the United States, Sweden, Germany, France, Australia, Britain, Brazil, the International Communication Satellites Organization, the International Marine Satellites Organization, and other international organizations.
Chinese Space Educational Infrastructure The first departments of Aeronautics were established in 1940 at Tsinghua University, Shanghai Chao-Tang University, Central University and Zhejiang University.
Following the return to China of Tsien Hse Shen and other US-educated experts in 1958, the Beijing Aeronautical Institute, Northwestern Polytechnic University, Xarbin Polytechnical University, Xarbin Military Institute of Technology and others established their departments of astronautics.
Northwestern Polytechnical University has provided an astronautics curriculum without interruption since 1958.
In its first forty years it granted more than 5000 Bachelors, 500 masters and 80 PhD degrees in astronautics.
The other institutes had their activities interrupted by the Cultural Revolution and only resumed teaching in the subject after 1985.
Areas of specialization include Flight Vehicle Design, Rocket Engine Design, Control Engineering, Flight Mechanics, Electronics, Avionics, and Computer Sciences.
These departments of Astronautics are now called colleges of Astronautics.
There were four launch pads at the Jiuquan launch site, complete with ground support facilities, from which 24 low earth orbit satellites were launched from 1970 into higher inclination orbits.
In 1999 the facility was improved by the addition of a southern area, with a new Vertical Assembly Building and launch pad for heavy and manned launch vehicles.
This launch site was used for the launch of sun-synchronous and other polar orbit satellites.
The Xichang satellite launch center was used for launch of geostationary satellites into low inclination transfer here />Xichang has the geographical advantage of being at a relatively low latitude.
All of China's geostationary satellites have been launched from Xichang, as well as foreign geostationary satellites launched by Chinese boosters.
Tracking, Telemetry and Command Network China's tracking, telemetry and command system was constructed and developed in close step with the development of launch sites.
Up until the late 1990's, China's TT and C system consisted of a control center located at Xi'an city in Shaanxi province, eight ground stations 5 fixed stations and 3 mobile stationsand two TT and C ships.
The 5 fixed ground stations were located at Weinan near Xi'anMin'xi in Fujian provinceChangchun in Jilin provinceKarshi in Xinjiangand Nanning in Guangxi.
Although located entirely within China, this network of optical and radio tracking devices, and radio telemetry and command links was very successful in fulfilling the needs of China's early space program.
In the late 1990's the original system was supplemented to support the manned space program of the post-2000 period.
The number of fixed stations on Chinese territory were increased to six.
Agreements were signed with France, Brazil, and Sweden to mutually share tracking stations.
An agreement was signed with France in February 1999 to tie together the French CNES control center with the Chinese center in Xian.
In January 2000 gave China access to the Swedish Space Corporation's tracking facilities in Sweden and Norway.
New tracking stations were built outside of Chinese territory in the Pacific, on South Tarawa Island of the Republic of Kiribati and at Swakopmund, Namibia, Africa.
The cooperative CBERS project resulted in installation of Chinese satellite control equipment at a ground station in Brazil.
A sixteen month overhaul of China's space tracking fleet was completed in Shanghai in 1999 and the fleet was increased to a total of four ships.
On a longer-range basis, a Chinese Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System TDRSS was studied.
The planned TDRSS would include two geostationary satellites and relay data from 5-10 satellites at a time while over 85% of the globe.
Any Chinese shuttle project will probably be realized in a different form than that originally planned some time in the first half of the next century.
The Hanover model suggests that a modest spaceplane, launched by expendable boosters, would be flown before proceeding to any full-scale reusable winged launch vehicles.
By 2002 Chinese space scientists were speaking of a two-stage to orbit, ballistic recoverable transport as the first recoverable Chinese space vehicle.
The decisions by Russia and America in 2004 to abandon winged designs for the next generation of manned spacecraft and stick to manned capsules may mean that China will abandon any plans for a similar design.
Subtopics The official short and long range plan for the Chinese Space Program as of November 2000.
Ed Grondine's account of China's 'Long March' to an independent manned space capability.
Projects:,.
Photo Gallery Shenzhou Shenzhou, name of first Chinese manned spacecraft, as named by President Zemin.
DFH-1 Credit: via Sven Grahn Recovery of FSW Recovery vit slot booking time 2020 FSW unmanned reconnaissance satellite capsule.
DFH-3 Credit: via Chen Lan Chinese Shuttle Chinese shuttle craft - model at the Chinese Pavilion, Hannover Expo 2000.
The model indicates a spaceplane similar to the cancelled European Hermes.
Credit: © Mark Wade Chinese on Moon Chinese astronauts with lunar rover plant the flag of the People's Republic of China's flag on the lunar surface - model at the Chinese Pavilion, Hannover Expo 2000.
Credit: © Mark Wade China astronauts China astronauts in training, 1980's 1054 July 4 .
Cai Qiao was Vice President of the Military Medical Sciences Academy of the People's Liberation Army.
In April 1966 he was one of three senior scientists that laid out the plans for China's first manned spacecraft.
Chairman of the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, one of three senior scientists that laid out plans for the first Chinese manned spacecraft in April 1966.
Leader in development of instruments for use on Chinese sounding rockets and artificial satellites.
Killed by Red Guards during the Cultural Revolution.
Chinese communications and telemetry systems engineer.
Leading rocket theoretician, expelled from USA as Red in 1955.
Created China's space industry from scratch, results: China's first ballistic missiles, 1960s; first satellite, 1970; and first astronaut, 2003.
Metallurgist who developed alloys crucial to China's nuclear, missile, and space programmes.
Metallurgist, developed materials for China's first recoverable satellites.
American pilot astronaut 1963-1969.
Member of first crew to orbit the moon.
Flew to orbit on Apollo 8 1968.
Tsien Hsue-shen, father of Chinese rocketry and spaceflight, leaves China on a Boxer Rebellion Scholarship to study at MIT.
Related Persons:https://gamerdownload.net/slot/high-roller-slots-jackpot.html />Tsien Hsue-shen, at the urging of Theodore von Karman, begins graduate studies at the California Institute of Technology.
He will continue there for nearly twenty years, first as a student, finally as the Goddard Professor, becoming one of the leading rocket scientists in the United States.
American physicist payload specialist astronaut 1983-1985.
Flew to orbit on STS-51B 1985.
American biochemist mission specialist astronaut 1978-2012.
Biochemist, first American woman to make a long-duration space station mission.
Flew to orbit on STS-51G 1985STS-34, STS-43, STS-58, STS-76.
Tsien Hsue-shen proposed a 22,000 kg single stage winged rocket that would carry ten passengers from New York to Los Angeles in 45 minutes.
FBI agents interrogate Tsien Hsue-shen on allegations that he is a Communist.
The same day his security clearance is revoked, making it virtually impossible to continue meaningful work in rocketry.
The allegations seem unlikely to his associates at CalTech his wife was the daughter of one of Chiang Kai-shek's leading military strategists.
Two weeks later, Tsien announces his intention to return to China.
Tsien, denied the possibility to work, becomes enmeshed in a tug-of-war between differing viewpoints in the US government bureaucracy: those that want to deport him as an undesirable alien, and those that want to keep him in the country because of what he knows.
After five years of wrangling, and secret talks in Geneva between the Red Chinese and US governments, Tsien is deported from the United States.
Upon arrival in China, he was immediately put to work as head of the Chinese missile program.
He had to introduce US systems engineering approaches to Chinese engineers, and build the technical infrastructure to enable China to build rockets.
Tsien is director of the institute.
It is equipped with mechanical desk calculators and only one telephone.
Deputy Director is a Tsien protege, Dr Guo Yonghuai, who graduated with a doctorate in aeronatuical engineering from Caltech in 1946.
The Director of Operations is Xu Guozhi, a systems analyst that Tsien met on the ship from America to China.
Tsien Hsue-shen submits a secret proposal to the State Council for ballistic missile development - 'Prospectus for Establishment of a National Defence Aviation Industry'.
The proposal calls for the establishment of a research facility for aeronautics and missile development.
Hundreds of Soviet and Chinese scientists put together the technology portion of China's 12 year plan.
Missile development is emphasized in the plan at the expense of the aircraft industry.
The Fifth Academy of the Ministry of National Defence is founded for development of ballistic missiles.
click is named its first Director on October 8.
The Academy is established on the premises of an old hospital and two sanatoriums, with an initial staff of 100 high school graduates and 100 to 200 college graduates.
Tsien teaches an 'Introduction to Rocket Technology' course while Zhuang Faggan from CalTech teaches aerodynamics.
They were delivered in December 1956.
Tsien is disgusted to find that the missiles are nothing but copies of the V-2.
Something more advanced is needed, he argues to the Russians.
Tsien denounces his former colleague Qian Weichang.
Russian and China sign New Defense Technical Accord, whereby Russia will supply China with protoype atomic bomb and two R-2 missiles, and related technical data.
Under the agreement the Soviet Union will provide to China the necessary specialists, training, and tooling for licensed production of the R-2 ballistic missile an slot racing track hua dong version of the V-2.
A Red Army missile battalion with two R-2's and their launchers arrive in Beijing by rail.
They are secretly moved to the premises of the Fifth Academy in the middle of the night.
The first project to build a Chinese satellite is set in motion.
Over the next year, the People's Liberation Army transfers 3000 technical staff and cadres to the Fifth Academy and a further 300 engineers to industry.
The Chinese government sends increasing numbers of Chinese engineers to Russia for training in missile technology.
All of this is done in great secrecy, with correspondence being addressed only to post office box numbers.
An article by Tsien confessing to his mistakes was published in the People's Daily.
Chairman Mao says that China must orbit a satellite at the earliest possible date in order to match the Americans and Russians.
An article by Tsien appeared in Kexue Dazhong, claiming that new methods and a new process cycle could increase agricultural production by twenty times.
This led to Mao's 'Great Leap Forward', resulting in the death of millions from starvation.
The 20th Corps of the People's Liberation Army begins construction of launch and tracking facilities at Jiuquan.
Wells are dug, willow and poplar trees are planted, roads and housing are constructed.
Second half of 1958 .
China orders 12 more R-2 missiles.
Tsien was elected Deputy of Guangdong Province to the National People's Congress.
Fifth Academy finalizes plan to proceed development of indigenous Dong Feng missiles original DF-1, DF-2, DF-3 designations.
Tsien was allowed to join the Communist Party.
The first Soviet advisors arrive to assist the Chinese in production of the R-2 missile.
Tsien and his colleagues set an initial goal of launching a satellite by the end of 1959.
They see no reason to copy the antiquated R-2 missile being transferred from Russia, and want to make a great leap to an intermediate range missile capable of serving as the first stage of a satellite launcher.
It very quickly becomes that this is much too ambitious and totally impossible.
A Chinese delegation goes to Russia to discuss delivery of more tooling and machine tools for missile production.
The Soviet Central Committee advises China it will not provide prototype or drawings of atomic bombs as agreed previously.
Khrushchev promised China that he would provide the drawing package for the R-12 IRBM as soon as testing was completed.
However then came the affair of the Sidewinder.
At the end of 1958 or early 1959 a complete missile fell into the hands of the Chinese.
They promised to provide it to the Russians, but then dragged their feet.
They were finally told in February 1959 that unless they provided the Sidewinder, they would not be given the R-12 package.
The missile was finally delivered but it was found that the key crystal in the infrared homing sensor was missing.
The Chinese had also been caught disassembling a P-15 cruise missile at a training facility in China.
It had taken the Russian trainers two days to get it reassembled correctly.
Therefore on June 20 1959 the decision was taken not to transfer the R-12 or the promised nuclear warhead design to China.
The Soviets created a new design bureau to copy the Sidewinder.
Fabrication of the crystal for the infrared sensor was the main obstacle.
The initial production batches had a 99% rejection rate.
A state commission was set up to get to the bottom of the problem, but couldn't find a solution.
The main problem seemed to be low-quality ore provided by the mines.
A second Chinese delegation goes to Russia to press for delivery of more tooling and machine tools for missile production.
First Chinese missile production factories built: Shenyang missile frames Nancheng engines.
Nie Rongzhen, Senior Commander of the Revolution responsible for strategic weapons, orders the Fifth Academy to quit wasting time on trying to leapfrog Soviet technology and concentrate on copying the Russian R-2.
Code name for the project is 1059.
Basic materials were difficult to get.
Some were imported; others substituted.
Eventually 40% of the parts of the missile used substitute materials, but many of these replacements proved to be inadequate.
Machine tools were not available, and the missile frame was formed manually by human muscle power.
Inert gas arc welding technology had to be developed.
Soviet style factories were being erected for the production of the missile.
The Shanghai design institute completed the first subscale experimental model of the T-7 sounding rocket.
This would use a solid booster and liquid propellant sustainer stage.
The rocket was fuelled using a bicycle pump.
Launched from Laogang, on the coast, the missile reached 8 km altitude.
Tsien reviewed rocket development in Shanghai and views a T-7 motor test.
The railway from Beijing to the Chinese missile launch site at Jiuquan is completed.
The trip to the site takes four to five days.
In the lucky slot numbers months relations between the Soviet advisors and Chinese engineers had been strained by increasing Soviet secrecy.
The Russians catch Chinese students at the Moscow Aviation Institute stealing restricted missile data.
Finally Khrushchev declared the suspension of military assistance to China.
All 1,343 Dene slot tournament specialists are withdrawn from the Fifth Academy in Beijing and return to Russia.
They leave behind 343 uncompleted contracts.
A total of 257 technical development projects were cancelled as a result.
The last Russian technical advisers are withdrawn from China.
Apogee: 60 km 37 mi.
First launch of the all-up missile.
Apogee: 100 km 60 mi.
The rocket was built in the Soviet Union but used Chinese propellants.
This launch took place just a month after all Soviet go here were withdrawn from 777 slots classic vegas />Tsien goes to Jiuquan to supervise preparations for launch of the first Chinese-built R-2.
Apogee: 100 km 60 mi.
First launch of all-Chinese version of Russian R-2, model 1059.
Radio guidance was used.
Nie Rongzhen is present to observe the event.
The objective proves much too ambitious and is eventually cancelled.
It is the last missile project Tsien is allowed to manage.
Apogee: 100 km 60 mi.
Apogee: 100 km 60 mi.
Two further launches are made from Jiuquan.
Four engineers from the Shanghai Institute of Machine and Electrical Design receive the first Chinese training in satellite design.
Tsien introduced a computer tool for management of Chinese aerospace development projects analogous to the American PERT program.
FAILURE: Failure of guidance and engine mounting.
Impacted after 69 seconds of flight.
Apogee: 0 km 0 mi.
First DF-2 launch attempt.
The rocket impacted the earth after only 69 seconds of flight.
Fundamental design errors were discovered in calculating flexing of the rocket in flight, placement of the guidance system, and engine mounting.
The missile was completely redesigned for reduced thrust.
Apogee: 115 km 71 mi.
Tsien tutors Mao on science.
This is one of only six times that Tsien actually met Mao.
Apogee: 200 km 120 mi.
This followed a two-year complete redesign and test program following the first launch failure in 1962.
The reduced-thrust missile had a range of 1050 km with a 1550 kg warhead, barely enough to reach Japan.
Apogee: 200 km 120 mi.
Apogee: 200 km 120 mi.
Apogee: 70 km 43 mi.
Launch Vehicle:.
Tsien had conducted a series hot slots app meetings with the Chinese leadership during the year to redefine China's missile development plans.
There are clashes between Tsien, who favours an American engineering approach, and his staff, who were trained in Russian and favour the Soviet approach.
Finally the missiles were defined by their target objectives, and a new development plan was adopted, with definite goals.
The 1059 missile copy of Russian R-2 was redesignated DF-1.
The DF-2 was to be improved to carry an atomic bomb to a range sufficient to hit Japan.
The DF-3 ICBM was cancelled, and the new Here project would involve development of a nuclear-tipped missile capable of reaching the Philippines earlier referred to as the DF-1.
The DF-4 was to be capable of hitting Guam, and the DF-5 would be an ICBM capable of reaching the United States.
The DF-2, DF-3 and DF-4 would use strap-down accelerometer guidance packages, while the DF-5 was to be equipped with a full-fledged inertial guidance unit.
The warhead had a yield of 20 kilotons.
Decision to proceed with DF-2A extended range version of DF-2.
Tsien presents his plan for a Chinese satellite to the Central Committee.
Apogee: 83 km 51 mi.
Shenguan is authorised to develop and produce a missile based on the Soviet P-15 'Styx' cruise missile later designated Haiyang.
Tsien says he can orbit a Chiense satellite in 1970 or 1971.
Apogee: 70 km 43 mi.
Apogee: 70 km 43 mi.
Chinese pilot taikonaut 1998-2006.
First Chinese man in space.
Retired thereafter, becoming Vice-Director of the China Astronaut Research and Training Center; by 2010 was Deputy Director of the Project 921 Office.
Flew to orbit on Shenzhou 5 2003.
Zhou En Lai approves the plan for the construction and launch of China's first satellite.
Apogee: 200 km 120 mi.
First launch of redesigned DF-2.
The flight demonstrated a 20% improvement in range for the same 1500 kg payload, and replaced the radio guidance of the DF-2 with an autonoumous gyroscopic system.
Tsien proposes to add electronic countermeasures and other penetration aids to the DF-5 ICBM in order to defeat the planned American ABM system.
The satellite will be launched by the CZ-1 launch vehicle, a DFH-2 IRBM with a new upper stage.
Tsien is now head of the Seventh Ministry of Machine Building the former Fifth Academy.
Cadres accuse Tsien of spreading Nazi propaganda in China after his visit to Germany in 1946.
Apogee: 100 km 60 mi.
Apogee: 100 km 60 mi.
Apogee: 200 km 120 mi.
DF-2A launched with a 1290 kg, 12 kt warhead from Jiuquan flew over a range of 800 km to Lop Nor, where the warhead successfully exploded.
The Ninth Academy was responsible for development of the nuclear package.
Tsien protégé Guo Yonghuai was the liaison between the Fifth and Ninth Academies for the development.
Apogee: 500 km 310 mi.
Apogee: 500 km 310 mi.
Tsien was overthrown by the 916 Mao Clique.
Ye Zhengguang, a missile engineer, with the approval off Zhou En Lai and Marshall Nie, confronts Tsien and removes him from his post as head of the Seventh Ministry.
Minister of Machine Building Wang Bingzhang was also deposed.
However Tsien was protected by the leadership, made a 'Vice Minister', and claimed he supports the coup.
Wang refused to cooperate and would not hand over the chops of his office to the 916 Clique.
Apogee: 500 km 310 mi.
Apogee: 500 km 310 mi.
Yao Tongbin, a metallurgist at he Seventh Ministry, is beaten to death by Red Guards.
Zhou En Lai intervenes, putting the top fifty missile scientists under this protection.
Apogee: 311 km 193 mi.
Apogee: 311 km 193 mi.
Leader in development of instruments for use on Chinese sounding rockets and artificial satellites.
Killed by Red Guards during the Cultural Revolution.
Apogee: 500 km 310 mi.
Apogee: 500 km 310 mi.
Apogee: 81 km 50 mi.
Apogee: 100 km 60 mi.
Apogee: 100 km 60 mi.
Apogee: 500 km 310 mi.
FAILURE: The program distributor in the second stage broke down.
The rocket crashed into the earth within view of the launch site after 69 seconds of flight.
Mass: 170 kg 370 lb.
Type: Navigation technology satellite.
The launch vehicle arrived at the site on 18 March 1969.
The objective was to launch China's first satellite before Japan lofted its counterpart.
Ren Xinmin had obtained this specific order from Deng Hsiao Peng.
Great difficulties were encountered in the middle of the Cultural Revolution, including the sending of most of the satellite engineers to work on irrigation ditch construction in the provinces.
The skirt for the satellite, designed to make it easily visible to ground observors, had to be made from a special silk produced in a factory without the knowledge of the Red Guards.
The engineers went by bus to a department store in Beijing to study an imported folding umbrella as a model for the deployment mechanism -- they could not afford to buy it.
The entire launch was kept secret until a documentary was released in 2001.
Apogee: 500 km 310 mi.
First test of prototype DF-3 perhaps same configuration as CZ-1 ; not deployed.
Mao personally authorises the launch.
Mass: 173 kg 381 lb.
Type: Navigation technology satellite.
USAF Sat Cat: 4382.
Apogee: 2,162 km 1,343 mi.
Perigee: 434 km 269 mi.
The final campaign to launch China's first satellite began on April 1, 1970, when two DFH-1 satellites and the CZ-1 rocket arrived by train at the Jiuquan Satellite Launch Centre.
This was over a year after the first attempt in 1969.
Ren Xinmin was project leader and Qi Faren was leader of the DFH-1 experiment team.
On April 2 Premier Zhou Enlai called a special meeting in the Great Hall of the People in Beijing for a final readiness review of the satellite and the launch vehicle.
Zhou wanted special guarantees that the satellite would transmit the march 'The East is Red' from orbit.
On the morning of April 24, 1970, the first and second stages of CZ-1 were loaded with propellant and stacked.
The satellite was mated to the spin-stabilized solid-propellant third stage, and the launcher entered the final eight hours of launch preparation.
Weather forecast for the launch at 9:30 p.
The historic launch came at 9:35 p.
Upon hearing the command "ignition", a launch controller pressed the button to start the rocket engines.
The three-stage CZ-1, which was 29.
Liftoff weight of the CZ-1 was 81.
Rocket expert Shen Jianan recounted that ".
I could only see the beautiful rocket lighting up the night sky and streaking towards the southeast.
I ran back inside to listen to the transmissions.
Broadcasting on the speaker were status reports like 'capturing target', 'nominal tracking', 'nominal flight', 'nominal second and third stage separation'.
China became the fifth nation after the former Soviet Union, the United States, France and Japan to achieve an indigenous space launch capability.
In the following days, the People's Central Broadcasting radio and newspapers in Beijing announced and printed worldwide times of DFH-1 and CZ-1 third stage passages, and directions of travel in the sky.
Senior officials in Beijing dispatched a chartered plane to JSLC to bring back Qi and other scientists.
In the International Labour Day celebration on May 1, Chairman Mao and Premier Zhou warmly welcomed them at the Tiananmen Square.
China approved Project 714 on July 14, 1970 to develop the Shuguang manned spacecraft, to be launched in 1973.
Shuguang group selection bagan in late 1970.
Initial screening resulted 88 candidates from PLA pilots.
After further medical and political testing in the first half of 1971, 20 finalists were selected.
One candidate did not report for training for reasons that were never divulged.
The program was cancelled in late 1971.
Apogee: 500 km 310 mi.
Payload: Shi Jian 1.
Mass: 221 kg 487 lb.
Type: Communications technology satellite.
USAF Sat Cat: 5007.
Apogee: 1,833 km 1,138 mi.
Perigee: 265 km 164 mi.
Similar in appearance to the American Telstar and conducted communications technology tests.
Apogee: 1,000 km 600 mi.
Research and Development Suborbital Flight.
Lin Bao and his entourage are killed when their aircraft crashes, purportedly while trying to leave the country.
Wang Bingzhang was associated with the coup plotters, and sent to prison for several years.
Apogee: 200 km 120 mi.
Apogee: 500 km 310 mi.
Apogee: 200 km 120 mi.
Research and Development Suborbital Flight.
Apogee: 1,000 km 600 mi.
Mass: 1,100 kg 2,400 lb.
Apogee: 200 km 120 mi.
Apogee: 200 km 120 mi.
Apogee: 500 km 310 mi.
FAILURE: Vehicle lost attitude stability and destroyed by range safety.
Mass: 1,100 kg 2,400 lb.
Apogee: 500 km 310 mi.
FAILURE: Cable carrying pitch rate gyro signal disconnected.
Mass: 2,500 kg 5,500 lb.
Type: Military surveillance satellite.
Apogee: 500 km 310 mi.
Mass: 1,107 kg 2,440 lb.
Type: Military surveillance satellite.
USAF Sat Cat: 8053.
Apogee: 455 km 282 mi.
Perigee: 190 km 110 mi.
Photo surveillance; radio transmission.
Mass: 2,500 kg 5,500 lb.
Type: Military surveillance satellite.
USAF Sat Cat: 8452.
Apogee: 483 km 300 mi.
Perigee: 183 km 113 mi.
First orbital test of Chinese recoverable photo surveillance satellite.
The spacecraft was brought down early, after this web page days in orbit, due to problems with the attitude control system cold gas supply.
Along the skirt of the return capsule some wires and instruments were burnt during re-entry and capsule impacted far from its planned landing point.
However usable film was obtained from the capsule.
The Chinese Academy of Space Technology organised a team to determine the cause, and improvements were made in the next spacecraft of the model.
Mass: 1,110 kg 2,440 lb.
Type: Military surveillance satellite.
USAF Sat Cat: 8488.
Apogee: 387 km 240 mi.
Perigee: 186 km 115 mi.
Photo surveillance; radio transmission.
Apogee: 1,000 km 600 mi.
First test of DF-4.
Apogee: 1,000 km 600 mi.
Mass: 1,108 kg 2,442 lb.
Type: Military surveillance satellite.
USAF Sat Cat: 9394.
Apogee: 2,145 km 1,332 mi.
Perigee: 195 km 121 mi.
Mass: 1,100 kg 2,400 lb.
Mass: 2,500 kg 5,500 lb.
Type: Military surveillance satellite.
USAF Sat Cat: 9587.
Apogee: 489 km 303 mi.
Perigee: 172 km 106 mi.
Photo surveillance; film capsule recovered 9 December.
First completely successful test of the FSW spy satellite.
Many improvements in comparison to the first FSW orbited.
Apogee: 200 km 120 mi.
Apogee: 1,000 km 600 mi.
Apogee: 1,000 km 600 mi.
Apogee: 1,000 km 600 mi.
Mass: 2,500 kg 5,500 lb.
Type: Military surveillance satellite.
USAF Sat Cat: 10611.
Apogee: 507 km 315 mi.
Perigee: 186 km 115 mi.
Photo surveillance; film capsule; capsule returned January 30.
Second fully successful FSW mission.
First public announcement of a Chinese manned program came in February, 1978.
By November the head of the Chinese Space Agency, Jen Hsin-Min, confirmed that China was working on a manned space capsule and a 'Skylab' space station.
Apogee: 200 km 120 mi.
Apogee: 1,000 km 600 mi.
Apogee: 1,000 km 600 mi.
Other sources say launch was from Taiyuan.
Apogee: 1,000 km 600 mi.
Other sources say launch was from Taiyuan.
FAILURE: Second stage failure.
Payload: Shi Jian 1.
Mass: 221 kg 487 lb.
The SJ-1 was similar in appearance to the American Telstar and conducted communications technology tests.
Apogee: 1,000 km 600 mi.
Apogee: 1,000 km 600 mi.
Other sources say launch was from Taiyuan.
Apogee: 1,000 km 600 mi.
Apogee: 1,000 km 600 mi.
Other sources say launch was from Taiyuan on 15 October.
The Chinese press reported a visit with the Chinese astronaut trainees at the Chinese manned spaceflight training centre.
Photographs appeared of the astronauts in training.
Pressure suited astronauts were shown in pressure chamber tests.
Other trainees were shown at the controls of a space shuttle-like spaceplane cockpit.
Apogee: 1,000 km 600 mi.
Other sources do not list this test.
Apogee: 1,000 km 600 mi.
Apogee: 1,000 km 600 mi.
Apogee: 1,000 km 600 mi.
Apogee: 1,000 km 600 mi.
First launch from Jingyu test site.
Apogee: 1,000 km 600 mi.
Wang Zhuanshan, the Secretary General of the New China Space Research Society and Chief Engineer of the Space Centre of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, announced that Chinese manned flight was being postponed because of its cost.
Fundamental economic development was given priority.
Payload: Shi Jian 2B.
Mass: 257 kg 566 lb.
Type: Navigation technology satellite.
USAF Sat Cat: 12842.
Apogee: 1,598 km 992 mi.
Perigee: 232 km 144 mi.
Payload: Shi Jian 2.
Mass: 483 kg 1,064 lb.
Type: Navigation technology satellite.
USAF Sat Cat: 12845.
Apogee: 1,608 km 999 mi.
Perigee: 232 km 144 mi.
Payload: Shi Jian C.
Mass: 28 kg 61 lb.
Type: Navigation technology slot racing track hua dong />USAF Sat Cat: 12843.
Apogee: 1,615 km 1,003 mi.
Perigee: 233 km 144 mi.
Balloon for drag studies.
Apogee: 1,000 km 600 mi.
Other sources say launch was from Taiyuan.
Apogee: 500 km 310 mi.
Apogee: 500 km 310 mi.
Apogee: 500 km 310 mi.
Mass: 2,500 kg 5,500 lb.
Type: Military surveillance satellite.
USAF Sat Cat: 13521.
Apogee: 392 km 243 mi.
Perigee: 172 km 106 mi.
Photo surveillance; film capsule recovered 14 September.
Apogee: 500 km 310 mi.
Metallurgist who developed alloys crucial to China's nuclear, missile, and space programmes.
Mass: 2,500 kg 5,500 lb.
Type: Military surveillance satellite.
USAF Sat Cat: 14288.
Apogee: 493 km 306 mi.
Perigee: 170 km 100 mi.
Photo surveillance; film capsule recovered 24 August.
FAILURE: Third stage failed to ignite.
Mass: 900 kg 1,980 lb.
Type: Civilian communications satellite.
USAF Sat Cat: 14670.
Apogee: 6,446 km 4,005 mi.
Perigee: 484 km 300 mi.
First launch of a prototype DFH-2 communications satellite.
Payload stranded in low earth orbit, but all subsystems including the communications payload were completely checked and tested.
Mass: 900 kg 1,980 lb.
Type: Civilian communications satellite.
Completed Operations Date: 1988-06-28.
USAF Sat Cat: 14899.
Apogee: 35,796 km 22,242 mi.
Perigee: 35,733 km 22,203 mi.
Prototype of DFH-2 communications satellite.
After on-orbit testing and check out of the satellite and the ground stations, the satellite system was declared operational, and was used experimentally for the transmission of television, telephone, and data messages with good results.
It stayed in operation for more than four years, exceeding the design life of three years by a comfortable margin.
Operated in geosynchronous orbit at 125 deg E in 1984-1988.
As of 4 September 2001 located at 40.
As of 2007 Feb 27 located at 133.
Mass: 2,500 kg 5,500 lb.
Type: Military surveillance satellite.
USAF Sat Cat: 15279.
Apogee: 398 km 247 mi.
Perigee: 172 km 106 mi.
Photo surveillance; film capsule recovered 17 September.
Apogee: 500 km 310 mi.
Apogee: 0 km 0 mi.
Mass: 2,500 kg 5,500 lb.
Type: Military surveillance satellite.
USAF Sat Cat: 16177.
Apogee: 393 km 244 mi.
Perigee: 171 km 106 mi.
Fanhui Shi Weixing photo surveillance satellite; film capsule recovered 26 October.
Apogee: 500 km 310 mi.
Apogee: 500 km 310 mi.
Mass: 1,024 kg 2,257 lb.
Type: Civilian communications satellite.
Completed Operations Date: 1990-06-01.
USAF Sat Cat: 16526.
Apogee: 35,819 km 22,256 mi.
Perigee: 35,774 km 22,228 mi.
Second successful DFH-2 launch.
Also designated STW-2, the satellite was positioned at 103 deg E.
In comparison to the first two DFH-2's, a parabolic antenna reflector replaced the horn antenna.
Operated in geosynchronous orbit at 103 deg E in 1986-1990.
As of 3 September 2001 located at 102.
As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 46.
Apogee: 500 km 310 mi.
Mass: 2,500 kg 5,500 lb.
Type: Slot pay by phone surveillance satellite.
USAF Sat Cat: 17001.
Apogee: 337 km 209 mi.
Perigee: 169 km 105 mi.
Fanhui Shi Weixing recoverable satellite; capsule re-entered October 11 after five day mission.
Mass: 2,500 kg 5,500 lb.
Type: Military surveillance satellite.
USAF Sat Cat: 18306.
Apogee: 366 km 227 mi.
Perigee: 169 km 105 mi.
Fanhui Shi Weixing recoverable satellite; carried microgravity experiments; return capsule recovered August 10 after five days in space.
Apogee: 500 km 310 mi.
Mass: 2,100 kg 4,600 lb.
Type: Military surveillance satellite.
USAF Sat Cat: 18341.
Apogee: 222 km 137 mi.
Perigee: 181 km 112 mi.
Fanhui Shi Weixing recoverable satellite; return capsule recovered September 17 after eight days in space.
Apogee: 100 km 60 mi.
Mass: 1,024 kg 2,257 lb.
Type: Military communications satellite.
Completed Operations Date: 1997-07-01.
USAF Sat Cat: 18922.
Apogee: 35,789 km 22,238 mi.
Perigee: 35,786 km 22,236 mi.
Operated in geosynchronous orbit at 87 deg E in 1988-1997.
As of 28 August 2001 located at 87.
As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 64.
Mass: 2,100 kg 4,600 lb.
Type: Military surveillance satellite.
USAF Sat Cat: 19368.
Apogee: 311 km 193 mi.
Perigee: 204 km 126 mi.
German crystal growth experiment in recoverable capsule.
Results marred by hard landing.
Payload: Feng Yun 1A.
loco slots 750 kg 1,650 lb.
Type: Weather technology satellite.
USAF Sat Cat: 19467.
Apogee: 895 km 556 mi.
Perigee: 875 km 543 mi.
First use of new launch site and launch vehicle.
Failed after 38 days due to problems with attitude control system.
First successful JL-1 launch, impacting 123.
Apogee: 70 km 43 mi.
Apogee: 70 km 43 mi.
Apogee: 70 km 43 mi.
Mass: 1,024 kg 2,257 lb.
Type: Military communications satellite.
USAF Sat Cat: 19710.
Apogee: 35,791 km 22,239 mi.
Perigee: 35,787 km 22,236 mi.
Operated in geosynchronous orbit at 110 deg E in 1989-1999.
As of 27 August 2001 located at 91.
As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 83.
Apogee: 70 km 43 mi.
Apogee: 1,000 km 600 mi.
Apogee: 100 km 60 mi.
Mass: 1,024 kg 2,257 lb.
Type: Military communications satellite.
Completed Operations Date: 1998-07-01.
USAF Sat Cat: 20473.
Apogee: 35,795 km 22,241 mi.
Perigee: 35,783 km 22,234 mi.
National operational communications satellite.
Operated in geosynchronous orbit at 98 deg E in 1990-1998.
As of 4 September 2001 located at 52.
As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 96.
Mass: 1,442 kg 3,179 lb.
Type: Civilian communications visit web page />USAF Sat Cat: 20558.
Apogee: 35,789 km 22,238 mi.
Perigee: 35,786 km 22,236 mi.
First commercial Chinese launch; Stationed at 105 deg E; formerly Westar 6 retrieved by STS-51A and refurbished.
Fixed-satellite telecommunication services and transmission of television signals.
Operational life about 10 years.
Telex 68345 ASAT HX Fax 852 576 4111.
Operated in geosynchronous orbit at 105 deg E in 1990-1999; 122 deg E in 1999-2000.
As of 3 September 2001 located at 121.
As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 23.
Mass: 3,400 kg 7,400 lb.
First launch of new Chinese launch vehicle.
Cai Qiao was Vice President of the Military Medical Sciences Academy of the People's Liberation Army.
In April 1966 he was one of three senior scientists that laid out the plans for China's first manned spacecraft.
Payload: Feng Yun 1B.
Mass: 881 kg 1,942 lb.
Type: Weather technology satellite.
USAF Sat Cat: 20788.
Apogee: 897 km 557 mi.
Perigee: 875 km 543 mi.
Operated for over a year.
USAF Sat Cat: 20790.
Apogee: 629 km 390 mi.
Perigee: 596 km 370 mi.
USAF Sat Cat: 20789.
Apogee: 811 km 503 mi.
Perigee: 789 km 490 mi.
Mass: 2,100 kg 4,600 lb.
Type: Military surveillance satellite.
USAF Sat Cat: 20838.
Apogee: 312 km 193 mi.
Perigee: 208 km 129 slot racing track hua dong />Fanhui Shi Weixing recoverable satellite; carried biological research experiments.
Apogee: 120 km 70 mi.
FAILURE: Third stage failed to ignite.
Mass: 1,025 kg 2,259 lb.
Type: Military communications satellite.
USAF Sat Cat: 21833.
Apogee: 34,041 km 21,152 mi.
Perigee: 2,023 km 1,257 mi.
Third stage failure; unusable orbit.
DFH-2 operational communications satellite.
Apogee: 500 km 310 mi.
The Chinese leadership decided that an independent manned space program could be afforded.
The Chinese National Manned Space Program was given the designation Project 921.
The 921-1 manned capsule entered full scale development in 1993 and the 921-2 space station in 1999.
Only preliminary work was authorised on the 921-3 reusable spaceplane.
Apogee: 0 km 0 mi.
Apogee: 0 km 0 mi.
Mass: 2,500 kg 5,500 lb.
Type: Military surveillance satellite.
USAF Sat Cat: 22072.
Apogee: 332 km 206 mi.
Perigee: 171 km 106 mi.
Fanhui Shi Weixing recoverable imaging satellite; carried microgravity experiments; capsule returned August 25 after 15 days in orbit.
Mass: 2,100 kg 4,600 lb.
Type: Military surveillance satellite.
USAF Sat Cat: 22162.
Apogee: 309 km 192 mi.
Perigee: 213 km 132 mi.
Fanhui Shi Weixing recoverable imaging satellite; carried remote sensing, microgravity experiments; capsule recovered October 13 after 6 days in orbit.
The 921-1 manned capsule entered full scale development in 1993 and the 921-2 space station in 1999.
Apogee: 0 km 0 mi.
Apogee: 1,000 km 600 mi.
Chairman of the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, one of three senior scientists that laid out plans for the first Chinese manned spacecraft in April 1966.
Payload: Jian Bing 93.
Mass: 2,099 kg 4,627 lb.
Type: Military surveillance satellite.
USAF Sat Cat: 22859.
Apogee: 2,860 km 1,770 mi.
Perigee: 181 km 112 mi.
The only FSW-1 mission conducted during 1993-1994 was launched into an orbit of 209 km by 300 km at an inclination of 57.
In addition to an Earth observation Payload, FSW-1 5 carried microgravity research equipment and a diamond-studded medallion commemorating the 100th anniversary of Chairman Mao Tse-Tung's birth.
The spacecraft operated normally until 16 October when an attempt to recover the satellite failed.
An attitude control system failure aligned the spacecraft 90 deg from its desired position, causing the re-entry capsule to be pushed into a higher elliptical orbit 179 km by 3031 km instead of returning to Earth.
Natural decay did not bring the capsule back until March 12, 1996.
Payload: Shi Jian 4.
Mass: 400 kg 880 lb.
USAF Sat Cat: 22996.
Apogee: 26,837 km 16,675 mi.
Perigee: 195 km 121 mi.
Particles and fields research.
Mass: 2,200 kg 4,800 lb.
Type: Navigation technology satellite.
USAF Sat Cat: 23009.
Apogee: 36,046 km 22,397 mi.
Perigee: 178 km 110 mi.
Mass model of DFH-3 satellite.
The first Fen Yung 2 geostationary weather satellite was undergoing final checkout before being mated to its launch vehicle when a fire and explosion erupted, destroying the vehicle, killing one worker and injuring 20 others.
Mass: 2,600 kg 5,700 lb.
Type: Military surveillance satellite.
USAF Sat Cat: 23145.
Apogee: 350 km 210 mi.
Perigee: 207 km 128 mi.
The second Fanhui Shi Weixing FSW-2 was launched on 3 July 1994 into an orbit of 173 km by 343 km at an inclination of 63.
The spacecraft remained in orbit for 15 days, making four small manoeuvres before successfully returning to Earth.
The payload included Earth observation systems, a biological experiment, and microgravity research instruments.
The retrievable capsule was recovered in China on July 18 1994 July 21 .
Mass: 1,383 kg 3,048 lb.
Type: Civilian communications satellite.
USAF Sat Cat: 23185.
Apogee: 35,789 km 22,238 mi.
Perigee: 35,785 km 22,235 mi.
Operated in geosynchronous orbit at 138 deg E in 1994-1999.
slot casino super of 5 September 2001 located at 138.
As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 141.
Mass: 2,230 kg 4,910 lb.
Type: Military communications satellite.
Completed Operations Date: 1994-12-01.
USAF Sat Cat: 23415.
my slots feeling real 35,957 km 22,342 mi.
Perigee: 35,225 km 21,887 mi.
The first test launch of a DFH-3 by a CZ-3A launch vehicle was successful in attaining the proper transfer orbit, but during the subsequent manoeuvres to achieve geostationary orbit, the DFH-3 failed due to a malfunction of the satellite on-board propulsion system.
The satellite was positioned at 132 deg E prior to the failure.
As of 4 September 2001 located at 113.
As of 2007 Mar 2 located at 90.
Apogee: 100 km 60 mi.
Apogee: 1,000 km 600 mi.
FAILURE: Shortcomings in the guidance system lead to the vehicle not anticipating the true effects of horizontal wind-shear once the mountains surrounding the launch site were cleared.
This caused the nose fairing to collapse and the spacecraft to be destroyed.
Mass: 2,830 kg 6,230 lb.
Type: Civilian communications satellite.
Because the Apstar failure happened a few seconds later than Optus, the consequences were catastrophic.
The vehicle was destroyed, and the falling wreckage landed on a village down-range of the launch site, killing at least 20 and perhaps as many as 120 people.
Apogee: 1,000 km 600 mi.
Apogee: 500 km 310 mi.
Apogee: 1,000 km 600 mi.
Mass: 3,485 kg 7,683 lb.
Type: Civilian communications satellite.
USAF Sat Cat: 23723.
Apogee: 35,798 km 22,243 mi.
Perigee: 35,777 km 22,230 mi.
TV; 24 C-band and 9 Ku-band transponders.
Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 100 deg E in 1995-1999 As of 5 September 2001 located at 100.
As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 100.
Apogee: 1,000 km 600 mi.
Apogee: 100 km 60 mi.
Apogee: 100 km 60 mi.
Apogee: 100 km 60 mi.
Apogee: 100 km 60 mi.
Mass: 2,800 kg 6,100 lb.
Type: Civilian communications satellite.
USAF Sat Cat: 23943.
Apogee: 35,791 km 22,239 mi.
Perigee: 35,785 km 22,235 mi.
As of 6 September 2001 located at 134.
As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 129.
Mass: 2,800 kg 6,100 lb.
Type: Military communications satellite.
USAF Sat Cat: 24282.
Apogee: 46,499 km 28,893 mi.
Perigee: 21,674 km 13,467 mi.
Mass: 2,600 kg 5,700 lb.
Type: Military surveillance satellite.
USAF Sat Cat: 24634.
Apogee: 133 km 82 mi.
Perigee: 121 km 75 mi.
Final launch in the FSW series.
Landed in China on November 4 after 15 days in orbit.
Chinese communications and telemetry systems engineer.
Apogee: 1,000 km 600 mi.
Apogee: 1,000 km 600 mi.
Repeated rumours appeared that a Chinese military satellite was launched or suffered a failure on this date.
The story was first carried by Reuters in May 1997.
In December 2000 it was again reported in a Chinese professional magazine that China launched its last recoverable satellite on April 20, 1997.
The last official launch of the series was in October 1996.
Mass: 2,200 kg 4,800 lb.
Type: Military communications satellite.
USAF Sat Cat: 24798.
Apogee: 35,797 km 22,243 mi.
Perigee: 35,776 km 22,230 mi.
The telecommunications satellite, the most sophisticated and complex satellite ever built in China, was equipped with 24 transponders used for television, digital transmission and other telecommunications services.
It had a design life eight years.
After over one year of tests the satellite was delivered to the end user, China Telecommunications Broadcast Satellite Corporation Chinasat on August 12 1998.
A long term operation contract for the redesignated Chinasat-6 was signed by the China Academy of Space Technology CASTChinasat and the Xian Satellite Control Center.
Chinasat-6 operated in geosynchronous orbit at 125 deg E in 1997-1999.
As of 5 September 2001 located at 124.
As of 2007 Mar 6 located at 123.
Mass: 1,250 kg 2,750 lb.
USAF Sat Cat: 24834.
Apogee: 35,784 km 22,235 mi.
Perigee: 35,783 km 22,234 mi.
Geosynchronous weather satellite; also known as FY-2B.
Operated in geosynchronous orbit at 105 deg E in 1997-2000; 85 deg E in 2000.
The FY-2A stopped transmission in April 1998 but was put back into partial operation in December 1998.
Its imager then failed completely on 30 September 1998 and it was retired in April 2000.
As of 4 September 2001 located at 83.
As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 58.
Mass: 3,700 kg 8,100 lb.
Type: Civilian communications satellite.
USAF Sat Cat: 25010.
Apogee: 35,798 km 22,243 mi.
Perigee: 35,774 km 22,228 mi.
As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 76.
Apogee: 1,000 km 600 mi.
Two Chinese astronauts completed their training in Russia and returned to China.
They would act as instructors for China's own astronaut training program.
At the same time the largest thermal vacum test equipment in Asia finished construction.
FAILURE: DM-3 Stage failed, leaving spacecraft in geosynchronous transfer orbit.
Mass: 3,400 kg 7,400 lb.
Type: Civilian communications satellite.
USAF Sat Cat: 25126.
Apogee: 35,964 km 22,346 mi.
Perigee: 35,612 km 22,128 mi.
The spacecraft was left in a high inclination useless orbit by a failure of the DM-3 stage and became an insurance writeoff.
Two trips around the Moon to remove the inclination under its new owner Hughes saw it back into very limited service as HGS-1 by August 1998 over the Indian Ocean and available for sale at bargain rates.
Operated in geosynchronous orbit at 150-154 deg W in 1998; 60 deg W in 1999.
As of 5 September 2001 located at 59.
As of 2007 Mar 8 located at 169.
Chinese papers at the meeting sketched details of future planned missions.
China was likely to begin its manned flights with a single orbit around Earth, and later launch its lunar 'quest'.
Existing Chinese launchers had the capability to send scientific devices, but not humans, to the moon -- it could take up to eight years to design a lunar spacecraft.
Feasibility studies on trips to the moon and Mars had begun.
Participants called for greater international cooperation in space and the lifting of an apparent freeze on China's participation in major joint projects.
They resented China's exclusion from the International Space Station.
China also planned to launch two astrophysical satellites into low earth orbit, one in equatorial orbit and another in polar orbit.
A mysterious signal hit one of the transmitters aboard the Apstar-1 telecommunications satellite on March 14, disrupting more than 400 securities companies' communications, cutting off service to more than 10 million pager users in China, and affecting China's earthquake monitoring systems.
Technicians ruled out a problem with the satellite and tests showed the interference was earth-based.
Service was restored to most users of the satellite by switching them to other channels.
Apstar-1, the first comsat of Hong Kong based APT Satellite Holdings, was launched in 1994 by a Long March 3.
A Guangzhou newspaper said that the first Chinese astronaut would fly by 2001.
It also mentioned lunar and space station plans.
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